“The best people are those of my generation, then those who come after them, then those who come after them. Then, there will come people after them whose testimony precedes their oaths and their oaths precede their testimony.” The Prophet Muhammad, peace and blessings be upon him.
Reported by Abdullah ibn Mas’ud. Source: Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī 6065, Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim 2533.
What this shows is there is something special about the Companions of the Prophet, and their Successors (for the next two generations). They are the Golden Generation: al-Qurun al-Dhahabiyyah. It was due to their Imaan (faith) and the Tawheed that they lived and breathed, garnered from the Prophet himself, peace be upon him, that make them examples of how to practice the teaching of the Prophet (Deen al-Islam). What is clear is they were united in their Aqeedah.
“And the intended purpose is that the Sahaabah – may Allaah be pleased with them – did not fight ever, over a principle (qaa’idah) from the principles of Islaam originally. And they did not differ in anything from the qawaa’id of Islaam, not about the Attributes, not about the Qadr, not about the issues of al-Asmaa` and al-Ahkaam (rulings), nor in the issues of the Imaamah.” (Minhaajus-Sunnah (6/336) of Ibn Taymiyyah)
الحمد لله والصلاة والسلام على رسول الله
All praise is due to ALLAH and peace and blessing upon His Messenger
بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
In the Name of Allah, The Most Gracious, The Most Merciful
Did the Sahaba differ in Aqeedah?
“There are those who come forth and claim that the Sahaabah differed in matters of ‘Aqeedah. What is the ruling on this? Please give us a fatwa, may you be rewarded.”
Al-‘Allâmah Sâlih al-Luhaydan responds:
“Astaghfirullaah! No one says this, except a misguided innovator. He says that the Sahaabah differed whilst the Sahaabah were people of ‘aqeedah. If there was any disagreement between them, then it was merely in some of the affairs of ijtihaad related to deeds.
As for the affairs of ‘aqeedah, that Allah is One and that He is All-Hearing and All-Seeing, and that He does what He wills, that He is the Supreme Creator, and that He is the Creator of everything and that He is aware of everything.
No! They did not differ (in Aqeedah). And no one brings up this affair, except a caller to fitnah. Except that he disguises himself — with his claim — that he is from the people of goodness. He may have known some good and started to speak with the good he knows, to mislead the people and drag them into the falsehood that he is inclined to and is eager in spreading.
If he is from those who are deceived, let him seek Allah’s forgiveness and repent to Him and let him return to the people of knowledge and ask them. And if he is from those who like to conceal their agendas and cover their true objectives let him be exposed so the people can be protected from his evil.”
What is the status of the Companions?
“Scholars are agreed upon the definition of Companionship by Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani: ‘A Companion is the believer who saw and heard God’s Messenger at least once and died as a believer’.1 Even though some scholars have stipulated that, in order to be ranked as a Companion, a believer should have lived in the company of God’s Messenger for one or even two years, the majority of the scholars regarded it as enough to have been present in the radiant atmosphere of the Messenger long enough to have derived some benefit from it.
The Quran grades them according to precedence in belief and according to conversion before the conquest of Makka and after it (al-Tawba, 9.100; al-Hadid, 57.10). The same gradation was also made by God’s Messenger himself. For example, he reproached Khalid for offending ‘Ammar, saying: Do not trouble my Companions!2 In the same way, he frowned at ‘Umar, when he annoyed Abu Bakr, and said: Should you not leave my Companions to me? Abu Bakr believed in me at a time when all of you denied me. Abu Bakr knelt down and explained: ‘O Messenger of God! It was my fault!’ 3
The Companions were divided into twelve ranks by Hakim al-Nisaburi.4 This division was made according to the chronological order and some groups are also included in others. It was accepted by the majority of scholars:
1. The ten to whom Paradise was promised while alive:
1. Abu Bakr As-Siddiq (51 B.H-13 A.H; 573-634 C.E)
2. Umar bin Al-Khattab Al-Farooq (40 B.H-23 A.H; 584-644 C.E)
3. Uthman bin Affan Ghani Dhun-Nurayn (47 B.H- 35 A.H; 577-656 C.E)
4. Ali bin Abi Talib (23 B.H- 40 A.H; 600-661 C.E)
5. Talha bin Ubaidullah (28 B.H-36 A.H; 596-656 C.E)
6. Zubair bin Al-Awwaam (28 B.H-36 A.H; 596-656 C.E)
7. Abdur-Rahman bin Awf (passed away 31 A.H/654 C.E)
8. Sa’d bin Abi Waqqas (23 B.H-55 A.H; 600-675 C.E)
9. Saeed bin Zaid (passed away 51 A.H)
10.Abu Ubaidah Aamir bin Abdullah bin Al-Jarrah. [See Tirmidhi, hadith 3747]
2. Those who believed prior to ‘Umar’s conversion and frequently gathered together secretly in the house of Arqam to listen to God’s Messenger, upon him be peace and blessings.
3. Those who migrated to Abyssinia.
4. The Helpers (Ansar) who were present at the first ceremony of taking the oath of allegiance to God’s Messsenger at al-‘Aqaba.
5. The Helpers who took the oath of allegiance to the Messenger at al-‘Aqaba, the following year.
6. The first Emigrants who joined God’s Messenger before his arrival in Madina during the Emigration.
7. The Companions who participated in the Battle of Badr.
8. Those who emigrated to Madina during the period between the Battle of Badr and the Treaty of Hudaybiya.
9. The Companions who took the oath of allegiance to God’s Messenger under a tree during the expedition of Hudaybiya.
10. Those who converted and emigrated to Madina after the Treaty of Hudaybiya.
11. Those who became Muslims after the conquest of Makka.
12. The children who saw God’s Messenger either during the conquest of Makka or during the Farewell Pilgrimage, or in any other place and on different occasions.”
- Hajar, al-Isaba, 1.7.
- I. Athir, Usd al-Ghaba, 4.132.
- Bukhari, “Tafsir,” 7/3.
- Hakim, Ma‘rifat Ulum al-Hadith, 22-4.
سبحان ربك رب العزة عما يصفون وسلام على المرسلين والحمد لله رب العالمين والصلاة والسلام على رسول الله محمد وعلى اله وصحبه أجمعين
Exalted be your Lord, the Lord of Glory, above what they attribute to Him, and peace be upon the Messengers, and all praise be to Allah, the Lord of the Universe. And the peace and blessing upon prophet Mohammed and his relatives and all his companions.